Testaments Of Abraham Collection

Testaments of Abraham Collection PDF
Author: Scriptural Research Institute
Publisher: Scriptural Research Institute
ISBN: 1989604757
Category : Religion
Languages : en
Pages : 67

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Testaments Of Abraham Collection

by Scriptural Research Institute, Testaments Of Abraham Collection Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Testaments Of Abraham Collection books, In the early Christian era a number of Testaments of the Partiarchs circulated in Jewish and Christian communities, the foremost being the Testaments of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The other major testaments were grouped together as the Testaments of the Twelve, which included the Testaments of Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Joseph, and Benjamin. These testaments were widely accepted by the early Christian churches, and continue to form part of the Armenian Bible. The books were popular in Western Europe during the Middle Ages, when they were generally considered authentic ancient Jewish texts. Critical analysis in the 16th century changed the view of Protestants and Catholics, as scholars at the time came to the belief that the texts were written in the early Christian era, likely in Greek. Subsequently the texts fell out of favor in most parts of Europe. However, Hebrew fragments of the Testaments of the Patriarchs were discovered in the 20th century among the Dead Sea Scrolls, proving the texts were originally written in Aramaic and Hebrew. The current academic view is that there was a simpler Hebrew Jewish version that was then updated in the early Christian era by Greek speakers that added the Christian prophesies. The 1st Testament of Abraham is the Christian version of the Testament of Abraham, a Christianized version of the 2nd Testament of Abraham. The designation of 1st and 2nd were determined by early Christian scholars, who decided that the 2nd version was a corrupted version of the 1st version. Modern scholars have come to the conclusion that the 1st version was a Christianized version of the older 2nd version, which itself was likely a Jewish version, originally written in Aramaic or Hebrew. One of the reasons that the 2nd version is considered older, is because it has survived in a number of languages, including Greek, Coptic, Old Slavonic, Arabic, Ge'ez, and Romanian, while the 1st version has only survived in Greek and Romanian. The 2nd version has also been considered scripture by several Churches and Israelite groups, including the Coptic Church in Egypt, Beta Israel in Ethiopia, and Beta Abraham in Sudan. The Testament of Abraham was also quoted by Origen circa 200 AD, and later in the Qur'an, showing it's significance to the people of the Middle East in the early Christian era. It is generally accepted that Origen was quoting the 1st version, meaning the text had already been Christianized by his time, however, the final paragraph is believed to be a later addition by an Orthodox cleric some time after the Council of Nicene in the 4th-century.



1st Testament Of Abraham

1st Testament of Abraham PDF
Author: Scriptural Research Institute
Publisher: Scriptural Research Institute
ISBN: 1989604730
Category : Religion
Languages : en
Pages : 48

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1st Testament Of Abraham

by Scriptural Research Institute, 1st Testament Of Abraham Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download 1st Testament Of Abraham books, The 1st Testament of Abraham is the Christian version of the Testament of Abraham, a Christianized version of the 2nd Testament of Abraham. The designation of 1st and 2nd were determined by early Christian scholars, who decided that the 2nd version was a corrupted version of the 1st version. Modern scholars have come to the conclusion that the 1st version was a Christianized version of the older 2nd version, which itself was likely a Jewish version, originally written in Aramaic or Hebrew. One of the reasons that the 2nd version is considered older, is because it has survived in a number of languages, including Greek, Coptic, Old Slavonic, Arabic, Ge'ez, and Romanian, while the 1st version has only survived in Greek and Romanian. The 2nd version has also been considered scripture by several Churches and Israelite groups, including the Coptic Church in Egypt, Beta Israel in Ethiopia, and Beta Abraham in Sudan. The Testament of Abraham was also quoted by Origen circa 200 AD, and later in the Qur'an, showing it's significance to the people of the Middle East in the early Christian era. It is generally accepted that Origen was quoting the 1st version, meaning the text had already been Christianized by his time, however, the final paragraph is believed to be a later addition by an Orthodox cleric some time after the Council of Nicene in the 4th-century.



Testaments Of The Twelve Patriarchs Collection

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs Collection PDF
Author: Scriptural Research Institute
Publisher: Scriptural Research Institute
ISBN: 1989604919
Category : Religion
Languages : en
Pages : 99

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Testaments Of The Twelve Patriarchs Collection

by Scriptural Research Institute, Testaments Of The Twelve Patriarchs Collection Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Testaments Of The Twelve Patriarchs Collection books, During the crusades, Latin translations of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs began to circulate in Western Europe, which were considered to be authentic testaments written by the children of Jacob until the Protestant reformation. During the Protestant reformation the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs were generally been discredited as Christian era forgeries, and stopped being used by Catholics and Protestants. The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs continued to be viewed as authentic in orthodox countries, and were integrated into the Oskan Armenian Orthodox Bible in 1666. Scholarly analysis of the testaments in the 1800s led to the conclusion that the testaments began as Pharisee texts, written in Hebrew, sometime the before 200 AD, when they were expanded by the Christian monks on Mount Athos. Since the discovery of fragments of four of the testaments among the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Pharisee view has been generally discredited. The oldest fragments discovered so far date to between 135 and 37 BC, and are written in Aramaic, which make it unlikely that they were written by a Pharisee. Additionally, the contents of the testaments are no longer viewed as being consistent with the Pharisee's theology, as they include a number of references to Greek gods, making the testaments more likely to be a Sadducee text, or from another Jewish sect. A number of references within the testaments point to an origin in the Seleucid Empire. The testaments repeatedly reference the Book of Enoch, or the Watchers from the Book of Enoch, as well as the Book of Job, and Satan as an individual instead of a descriptive term, which is consistent with the Book of Job, the likely source is the Tobian Jews (Τουβιανοὺς Ιουδαίους) mentioned in 2nd Maccabees, that lived in Seleucid controlled regions. It is unclear where the Tobian Jews lived, however, according to Eusebius, writing circa 300 AD, in local lore Job lived in the Arabian town of Karnaia. The location of Karnaia is unknown today, however is believed to have once been in what is modern southern Syria, and would have been in the Seleucid Empire when the testaments were likely written. The original work appears to be an anti-Levitical text, which dismissed the Levitical priesthood, and pointed to an alternative priesthood, which is consistent with the division between the priesthood of Ezra and Tobiah referred to in the Septuagint's 1st Ezra.



Life Of Adam And Eve Collection

Life of Adam and Eve Collection PDF
Author: Scriptural Research Institute
Publisher: Scriptural Research Institute
ISBN: 1989604226
Category : Religion
Languages : en
Pages : 77

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Life Of Adam And Eve Collection

by Scriptural Research Institute, Life Of Adam And Eve Collection Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Life Of Adam And Eve Collection books, The original version of the Life of Adam and Eve is believed to have been written in a Semitic language, as there as terms transliterated into the surviving Greek, Latin, Armenian, Slavonic, and Georgian versions from a Semitic language, however, it is not known positively which language as the original text is lost, and so far, no fragments have been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls that have been firmly linked to it. The closest text discovered to date among the Dead Sea Scrolls would be the Genesis Apocryphon scroll, written in Aramaic and generally dated to between 37 BC to 50 AD. The original language was probably also Aramaic, as demonstrated by the use of the name Iah in the Apocalypse of Moses, which is found more commonly in Aramaic language books, like Tobit, as well as the transliteration of Belial (ბელადი) in the Book of Adam, which was generally found in Aramaic books. The unusual transliterations of the name of the Devil as Khatanay (Խատանայ), and the name of the archangel Ovel (Ովէլ) in the Penitence of Adam also support a Semitic language other than Hebrew, as the direct transliterations would have been Satana (Սատանա) and Uriyel (Ուրիել). The Greek Apocalypse of Moses is arguably the most influential of these texts, as it is likely the text that the apostle Paul referred to in 2nd Corinthians. A number of references circumstantially date the original work to the era when the Greeks ruled Judea, between 330 and 140 BC. The reference to Iah is itself evidence of a pre-Hasmonean origin, as the Hasmoneans' authorized' version of the Hebrew texts appear to have redacted Iah (יה) to Yahweh (יהוה) when they converted the Jews from the Canaanite (Samaritan/Paleo-Hebrew) script to the Assyrian (Hebrew) script. The name Iah (Jah) does show up in many ancient names, such as Josiah, and phrases such as Hallelujah, implying it was once widely accepted as the name of (a) God, however, virtually disappeared from the Hebrew scriptures at some point, likely during the Hasmonean redaction and standardization circa 140 BC. The longest surviving copy of the Life of Adam and Eve, is its namesake, the Latin Life of Adam and Eve (Vita Adea et Evae). This version was preserved by the Catholic Church, and copies were available to scholars in Western Europe earlier than the East European manuscripts, which is why the entire collection of literature is named after it. The Latin Life of Adam and Eve is very similar to the Armenian Penitinece of Adam, as well as the Georgian Book of Adam, which forms a specific sub-group of the Life of Adam and Eve literature, the Latin-Armenian tradition. The Georgian Book of Adam is very similar to the Armenian Penitence of Adam, and widely believed to have been translated from it, however, neither the Armenian nor Latin versions could have been copied from each other, implying a common Semitic source-text, separate from the Semitic source-text used for the Apocalypse of Moses. While the source-text for the Greek Apocalypse of Moses appears to date to the era when the Greeks ruled Judea, between 330 and 140 BC, the source-text for the Latin-Armenian tradition appears to have been older. One of the indicators for this is the discrepancy between the 72 'strokes' and 70 'wounds/griefs/evils' that God sent to punish Adam. In the Apocalypse of Moses, there are 72, while in the Latin, Armenian, and Georgian versions of the text all have 70, and these numbers are significant.



Testament Of Job

Testament of Job PDF
Author: Scriptural Research Institute
Publisher: Scriptural Research Institute
ISBN: 1989604927
Category : Religion
Languages : en
Pages : 45

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Testament Of Job

by Scriptural Research Institute, Testament Of Job Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Testament Of Job books, In the early Christian era, many Testaments of the Patriarchs circulated in Jewish and Christian communities, the foremost being the Testaments of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The other major testaments were grouped together as the Testaments of the Twelve, which included the Testaments of Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Joseph, and Benjamin. The Testament of Adam was used by the Sethians and later Sethian Gnostics. While the Testament of Job was used by the Christian Montanist sect, and the Gnostic Valentinian sect in the 2nd century. The Testament of Job appears to have never been accepted by orthodox Christians, however, a synopsis of the testament was included in orthodox translations of the Septuagint's Book of Job since the 3rd century, where it was described as being in the Syriac Bible of the time. The Testament of Job also includes the Song of Eliphaz, which refers to the 'Northern One' as a dragon, which appears to be a reference to Thuban (Alpha Draconis), which was the North Star between the 4th and 2nd millenniums BC. This implies that the Song of Eliphaz may date back to the 2nd millennium BC, which is when Job lived according to the Torah. Several references within the testaments point to an origin in the Seleucid Empire, including mentions of Greek gods, and Zoroastrian terminology. The testament also includes Satan as an individual instead of a descriptive term, which is consistent with the Book of Job, the likely source is the Tobian Jews (Τουβιανοὺς Ιουδαίους) mentioned in 2nd Maccabees, who lived in Seleucid controlled regions. It is unclear where the Tobian Jews lived, however, according to Eusebius, writing circa 300 AD, in local lore Job lived in the Arabian town of Karnaia. The location of Karnaia is unknown today, however, is believed to have once been in what is modern southern Syria, and would have been in the Seleucid Empire when the testaments were likely written. The original work appears to be an anti-Levitical text, which dismissed the Levitical priesthood and pointed to an alternative priesthood, which is consistent with the division between the priesthood of Ezra and Tobiah referred to in the Septuagint's 1st Ezra.



Testament Of Levi

Testament of Levi PDF
Author: Scriptural Research Institute
Publisher: Scriptural Research Institute
ISBN: 1989604811
Category : Religion
Languages : en
Pages : 25

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Testament Of Levi

by Scriptural Research Institute, Testament Of Levi Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Testament Of Levi books, The Testament of Levi, like the other Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, is considered to be a Jewish work that was added to by Christians in the Christian era. It is unclear when it comes from, however, fragments of the Testaments of Joseph and Levi have been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls in Aramaic, dating to between 135 and 37 BC, implying the rest of the Twelve were compiled at the same time. The Testament of Levi also refers to the Book of Enoch, an Aramaic Second Temple era work that was not included in the Septuagint, which implies it was written around the same time as the Books of Daniel and Enoch, which would date it to anywhere between 300 and 100 BC. The surviving copies of the Testament of Levi contain multiple layers of prophecy that was once accepted as being authentic pre-Christian predictions of the coming of Jesus Christ. This view shifted in Western Europe during the Protestant reformation, and the text was assumed to be a Christian era work, and generally dismissed as a forgery. This view shifted by the 1900s, as an Semitic layer of text was found within it that indicated it was originally a pre-Christian work that was later Christianized, and it was then assumed to be a Pharisee work that the Christians had added all the prophecies to. Since the discovery of fragments of the testament have been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, dating to between 135 and 37 BC, and written in Aramaic, the Pharisee theory has been discredited. The Dead Sea Scrolls fragments have also shown that some of the prophecies were present in the Aramaic texts by 37 BC, meaning that the Christians had simply added to the prophecies to indicate they were about Jesus. The original work appears to be an anti-Levitical text, which dismissed the Levitical priesthood, and pointed to an alternative priesthood. As this was not a Samaritan text, it was likely a text written by the Tobian Jews mentioned in 2nd Maccabees, that lived in Seleucid controlled regions.



Testament Of Judah

Testament of Judah PDF
Author: Scriptural Research Institute
Publisher: Scriptural Research Institute
ISBN: 198960482X
Category : Religion
Languages : en
Pages : 24

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Testament Of Judah

by Scriptural Research Institute, Testament Of Judah Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Testament Of Judah books, The Testament of Judah, like the other Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, is considered to be a Jewish work that was added to by Christians in the Christian era. It is unclear when it comes from, however, fragments of the Testaments of Judah and and Naphtali have been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls in Hebrew, dating to between 37 BC and 44 AD. Given the number of references to primordial gods, it is unlikely to be the work of a Pharisee, and was likely translated into Hebrew from Aramaic or Greek. As it has some of the same anti-Levitical content as the Testament of Levi, it was likely a text written by the Tobian Jews mentioned in 2nd Maccabees, that lived in Seleucid controlled regions.



Testament Of Solomon

Testament of Solomon PDF
Author: Scriptural Research Institute
Publisher: Scriptural Research Institute
ISBN: 1989604943
Category : Religion
Languages : en
Pages : 56

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Testament Of Solomon

by Scriptural Research Institute, Testament Of Solomon Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Testament Of Solomon books, In the early Christian era, many Testaments of the Patriarchs circulated in Jewish and Christian communities. The Testaments of Job and Solomon was used by the Christian Montanist sect, and the Gnostic Valentinian sect in the 2nd century. The Testament of Solomon was widely used by Christian and Gnostic astrologers in the first few centuries of the Christian era, however, clearly began as a pre-Christian prophetic text, predicting the coming of Emmanuel, the Israelite Messiah whose Gematria value would be 644, which is not the Gematria value of Jesus. While references to Jesus' life and crucifixion are present in this testament, the predictions are believed to have been added later, likely before the year 200 AD. The second half of the Testament of Solomon is largely drawn from ancient Egyptian astrology, which divided the circle of the Zodiac into 36 decans, or small-constellations. These later decans formed the basis of Indian astrology, who called it 'Greek' astrology, beginning with Sphujidhvaja's Yavanajātaka, published around 150 AD. The content of the testament places its origin sometime before the time of Jesus, however, unlike most Jewish texts from the time, it treats the Jewish priesthood in the Second Temple with disdain, and refer to the priesthoods established by Ezra and Nehemiah under Persian authority as a corruption. This means it could not have been a Pharisee or Sadducee work, however, does not clarify if it was a Samaritan work, or the work of another Jewish sect, such as the Tobian Jews (Τουβιανοὺς Ιουδαίους) mentioned in 2nd Maccabees, who lived in Seleucid controlled regions. The attack on Ezra would be equally valid for Samaritans or the followers of the High Priest Tobiah, who Ezra kicked out of the Temple in Jerusalem in the Septuagint's 1st Ezra. The apocalyptic message seems to point to it originating in the same sect as the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Testament of Job, and Testament of Moses, as well as the books of Enoch, Tobit, Jubilees, and Job, which were likely the work of the Tobian Jews. However, as the Tobian Jews were described as living in Bashan (southern modern Syria), and this was not part of Judah, but rather part of the Tribe of Manasseh's territory, therefore this testament strongly implies that the Tobian Jews were Samaritans, which would explain why most of their texts were never accepted by Rabbinical Jews.



Testament Of Benjamin

Testament of Benjamin PDF
Author: Scriptural Research Institute
Publisher: Scriptural Research Institute
ISBN: 1989604900
Category : Religion
Languages : en
Pages : 19

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Testament Of Benjamin

by Scriptural Research Institute, Testament Of Benjamin Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Testament Of Benjamin books, The Testament of Benjamin, like the other Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, is considered to be a Jewish work that was added to by Christians in the Christian era. It is unclear when it comes from, however, fragments of the Testaments of Joseph and Levi have been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls in Aramaic, dating to between 135 and 37 BC, implying the rest of the Twelve were compiled at the same time. It survives in a Christianized Armenian translation, which was added to the Oskan Armenian Orthodox Bible in 1666. During the crusades, Latin translations of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs began to circulate in Western Europe, which were considered to be authentic testaments written by the children of Jacob until the Protestant reformation. During the Protestant reformation the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs were generally been discredited as Christian era forgeries, and stopped being used by Catholics and Protestants. The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs continued to be viewed as authentic in orthodox countries, and were integrated into the Oskan Armenian Orthodox Bible in 1666. Scholarly analysis of the testaments in the 1800s led to the conclusion that the testaments began as Pharisee texts, written in Hebrew, sometime the before 200 AD, when they were expanded by the Christian monks on Mount Athos. Since the discovery of fragments of four of the testaments among the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Pharisee view has been generally discredited. The oldest fragments discovered so far date to between 135 and 37 BC, and are written in Aramaic, which make it unlikely that they were written by a Pharisee. Additionally, the contents of the testaments are no longer viewed as being consistent with the Pharisee’s theology, as they include a number of references to Greek gods, making the testaments more likely to be a Sadducee text, or from another Jewish sect.



Testament Of Asher

Testament of Asher PDF
Author: Scriptural Research Institute
Publisher: Scriptural Research Institute
ISBN: 1989604889
Category : Religion
Languages : en
Pages : 15

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Testament Of Asher

by Scriptural Research Institute, Testament Of Asher Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Testament Of Asher books, The Testament of Asher, like the other Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, is considered to be a Jewish work that was added to by Christians in the Christian era. It is unclear when it comes from, however, fragments of the Testaments of Joseph and Levi have been found among the Dead Sea Scrolls in Aramaic, dating to between 135 and 37 BC, implying the rest of the Twelve were compiled at the same time. In the early Christian era, many Testaments of the Patriarchs circulated in Jewish and Christian communities, the foremost being the Testaments of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The other major testaments were grouped together as the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, which included the Testaments of Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Joseph, and Benjamin. These testaments were widely accepted by the early Christian churches, and continue to form part of the Armenian Bible. The books were popular in Western Europe during the Middle Ages when they were generally considered authentic ancient Jewish texts. Critical analysis in the 16th century changed the view of Protestants and Catholics, as scholars at the time came to the belief that the texts were written in the early Christian era, likely in Greek. Subsequently, the texts fell out of favor in most parts of Europe. However, Hebrew fragments of the Testaments of the Patriarchs were discovered in the 20th century among the Dead Sea Scrolls, proving the texts were originally written in Aramaic and Hebrew. The current academic view is that there was a simpler Hebrew Jewish version that was then updated in the early Christian era by Greek speakers that added the Christian prophesies.