: Scriptural Research Institute
Scriptural Research Institute
by Scriptural Research Institute, Testaments Of Abraham Collection Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Testaments Of Abraham Collection books
, In the early Christian era a number of Testaments of the Partiarchs circulated in Jewish and Christian communities, the foremost being the Testaments of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The other major testaments were grouped together as the Testaments of the Twelve, which included the Testaments of Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Joseph, and Benjamin. These testaments were widely accepted by the early Christian churches, and continue to form part of the Armenian Bible. The books were popular in Western Europe during the Middle Ages, when they were generally considered authentic ancient Jewish texts. Critical analysis in the 16th century changed the view of Protestants and Catholics, as scholars at the time came to the belief that the texts were written in the early Christian era, likely in Greek. Subsequently the texts fell out of favor in most parts of Europe. However, Hebrew fragments of the Testaments of the Patriarchs were discovered in the 20th century among the Dead Sea Scrolls, proving the texts were originally written in Aramaic and Hebrew. The current academic view is that there was a simpler Hebrew Jewish version that was then updated in the early Christian era by Greek speakers that added the Christian prophesies. The 1st Testament of Abraham is the Christian version of the Testament of Abraham, a Christianized version of the 2nd Testament of Abraham. The designation of 1st and 2nd were determined by early Christian scholars, who decided that the 2nd version was a corrupted version of the 1st version. Modern scholars have come to the conclusion that the 1st version was a Christianized version of the older 2nd version, which itself was likely a Jewish version, originally written in Aramaic or Hebrew. One of the reasons that the 2nd version is considered older, is because it has survived in a number of languages, including Greek, Coptic, Old Slavonic, Arabic, Ge'ez, and Romanian, while the 1st version has only survived in Greek and Romanian. The 2nd version has also been considered scripture by several Churches and Israelite groups, including the Coptic Church in Egypt, Beta Israel in Ethiopia, and Beta Abraham in Sudan. The Testament of Abraham was also quoted by Origen circa 200 AD, and later in the Qur'an, showing it's significance to the people of the Middle East in the early Christian era. It is generally accepted that Origen was quoting the 1st version, meaning the text had already been Christianized by his time, however, the final paragraph is believed to be a later addition by an Orthodox cleric some time after the Council of Nicene in the 4th-century.